Bernard of Clairvaux.
Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Latin: Bernardus Claraevallensis; 1090– 20 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism caused the formation of the Cistercian order.
He was sent to found a new abbey at an isolated clearing in a glen known as the Val d' Absinthe, about 15 kilometres (9.3m) southeast of
According to tradition, Bernard founded the monastery on 25th June 1115, naming it Claire Vallée, which evolved into Clairvaux. There Bernard would preach an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary. In the year 1128, Bernard attended the Council of Troyes, at which he traced the outlines of the Rule of the Knights Templar, which soon became the ideal of Christian nobility.
On the death of Pope Honorius II on 13th February 1130, a schism broke out in the Church. King Louis VI of France convened a national council of the French bishops at Étampes in 1130, and Bernard was chosen to judge between the rivals for pope. By the end of 1131, the kingdoms of France, England, Germany, Portugal, Castile and Aragon supported Innocent; however, most of Italy, southern France and Sicily, with the Latin patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch and Jerusalem supported Anacletus. Bernard set out to convince these other regions to rally behind Innocent.
In 1139, Bernard assisted at the Second Council of the Lateran. He subsequently denounced the teachings of Peter Abelard to the pope, who called a council at Sens in 1141 to settle the matter. Bernard soon saw one of his disciples elected Pope Eugene III. Having previously helped end the schism within the church, Bernard was now called upon to combat heresy. In June 1145, Bernard travelled in southern France and his preaching there helped strengthen support against heresy.
After the Christian defeat at the Siege of Edessa, the pope commissioned Bernard to preach the Second Crusade. The last years of Bernard's life were saddened by the failure of the crusaders, the entire responsibility for which was thrown upon him. Bernard died at the age of 63, after 40 years as a monk. He was the first Cistercian placed on the calendar of saints, and was canonized by Pope Alexander III on 18th January 1174. In 1830 Pope Pius VIII bestowed upon Bernard the title "Doctor of the Church".